_ES via Flickr What is communication process?
Stimulation & Motivation are two important factors for any type of communication. The sender must be stimulated for the discussion and receiver must be motivated to listen or respond.
People have different frame of reference – the sender and receiver should be aware about this to avoid miscommunication.
No two people have identical frame of reference
It is the responsibility of the sender to ensure that the message is received by the receiver the way it was sent.
About 70% of the communication happens through
non-verbal mode. It is not just the content but, even how it is delivered is critical. Listening is one of the important parts of the communication.
Paraphrase what you hear to show 1. You listened 2. You respect the person 3. You have heard it right
Attributes of informative presentation:
Steps in informative presentation:
Analyze potential listeners
Know who they are? What do they expect? Their skill level, etc.
Be clear with the purpose
Audience should know what you are talking and why should they listen in the first 30 sec
Plan the body
Prepare conclusion and introduction
Most important part of presentation/
speech Use visual aids
State the purpose at the beginning and set the right expectations.
The introduction and conclusion should be very well planned. Audience usually remembers the beginning and the end for a long time. The core is also important but the conclusion reinforces what you intended
Remember “say what you are going to say, say what you want to say, and say what you said” this shows how important is introduction and conclusion.
Confidence is a key attribute of the delivery. Research well on the topic to be presented. Be prepared for the latest and greatest news on the topic, there might be questions on the current trend.
Research need not be limited to internet alone, other sources are:
Printed material – newspaper, magazine, books, brochure, etc.
Commercial database – IDC,
ProQuest, HBR, etc. Personal interview with experts
Internet – you can find the soft copy of most of the above sources on the internet
At least just
google the topic and read the top sites on first few pages Information communication should be filled with facts, statistics, and updates
Justification should be given only upon asking
Always start from high level information as senior management might be interested in yes/no, or go/no-go type of information
Benefits of Visual aid are:
Speeds comprehension of the topic
Improves listeners memory
Most used/ accessible types of visual aids are:
PowerPoint/ Audi/video Flipcharts/posters
Marker board/chalk board
Best practices of PowerPoint or any visual aid include:
Entire slide should be understandable in under 6 sec
Use big fonts size (around 30 size fonts)
Use around half the number of visual aid of speaking time (3 slides for 5 min talk)
Do not read from visual aid
Use proper font style (Times preferred)
4 to 6 lines of text per slide with max 40 characters per line
Use phrases/words, and avoid sentences
Use graphs instead of reports if possible
Clean the graph to show the most important information
Attributes of Persuasive presentation
Components of a persuasive speech are: evidence, confidence and credibility.
It is better to present both sides of argument if you are speaking to audience who has some prior knowledge in the topic.
It is more persuasive to talk about both sides, present why it is more positive, and how does it overcome its negative
However, avoid presenting arguments about both sides to those getting introduced to the topic
Credibility of the speaker is the most important factor for persuasive speech
Credibility of the speaker sometimes can fill the gaps on the content of the argument or evidence and still be persuasive
Credibility can be achieved by:
Do not avoid eye contact; do not look on the ground, over the head, etc.
Don not move eyes rapidly, look at each person/group for 2-3 seconds
Honesty, fairness and integrity in the argument
Good voice modulation
Be fluent in thought process
Avoid fillers and fill them with pauses to generate curiosity in the audience
Use anecdotes and examples
Citation from reliable source
Good visual aid
Forceful, enthusiastic and voice modulation
Be conversational at all the time
Over dynamism without being conversational is a negative factor towards creditworthiness
Example of good dynamic personality: Obama, stand up comedians, etc.
Example of bad /over dynamic personality: ‘God
TV’ preachers who shout but are not conversational Objectivity: Be open minded, unbiased, non-critical, etc.
Position: Higher the rank in business, the better is perceived credibility.
Psychological needs of listeners: the speaker should motivate the listeners on theirs needs based on
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Steps to prepare in persuasive speech
Analyze listeners needs
State your purpose
Plan your credibility
Research your topic
Organize the body with a storyboard
It is THE MOST important skill in overall
communication skills Some of the common mistakes to avoid:
Don’t assume that the speaker’s topic is boring
Never be critical of speaker’s
English, grammar, usage of words, body language, etc. Understand the emotions behind the facts
Pay attention and do not day dream
Never cutoff people or start arguing when they are not finished
Never prepare your counter statements until they are completely finished
It was interesting to see there are 4 different types of communication styles to build rapport
I always used all 4 types of conversation with all my managers/ co-workers, which I know was a wrong thing
Open and candid approach with an introvert makes him uncomfortable
Open style of communication with closed style type of person, will threaten him/her even if he/she were your manager
Ways to communicate with closed managers:
Don’t expect any praise, guidance, criticism or help
Maintain low profile and don’t make waves
Don’t ask questions
Ways to communicate with blind manager
Take their criticism
Let him feel the control
Ways to communicate with hidden manager
Don’t expect the boss to disclose fully, watch for non-verbal communication
Give public appreciation to boss
Be tactful in confrontation
Ways to communicate with open managers
Be open and honest
Don’t hesitate to share job feelings, doubts, concerns
This consists of 70% of the communication skills
Face expressions and eye contact play a key role
Body gestures to be sensitive to cultural differences
Clothing and accessories
Distance and personal space